A large part of our time in JavaScript will be spent dealing with numbers. Even if we aren’t working with numbers directly, we’ll indirectly encounter them when doing even the most basic of tasks such as keeping count of something, working with arrays, etc.

In this tutorial, I will provide an introduction to numbers in JavaScript by looking at how you can use them to accomplish many common tasks. Along the way, we will dive a little bit beyond the basics to broadly explore some interesting number-related things you might find useful.

Onwards!

To kick your JavaScript skills into outer space, everything you see here and more (with all its casual clarity!) is available in both paperback and digital editions.

BUY ON AMAZONIn order to use a number, all we have to do is…well, use it. Below is a simple example of us declaring a variable called stooges that is initialized to the number 3:

`let stooges = 3;`

That is it. There are no hoops to jump through. If we wanted to use more complex numbers, we can just use them as if nothing is different:

```
let pi = 3.14159;
let color = 0xFF;
let massOfEarth = 5.9742e+24;
```

In the above example, we are using a decimal value, a hexadecimal value, and a really large value using exponents. In the end, our browser will automatically do the right thing. Note that the "right thing" doesn't just exist in the positive space. We can use negative numbers easily as well. To use negative numbers, just place a minus (-) character before the number we want to turn into a negative value:

`let temperature = -42;`

What we've seen in this section makes up the bulk of how we will actually use numbers. In the next couple of sections, let's go a little bit deeper and look at some of the other interesting things we can do with them.

If you are curious why working with numbers is so easy, the reason is because JavaScript isn’t big on numerical types. You don’t have to declare a number as being of type int, double, byte, float, etc. like you may have had to do in other languages. The only exception is if you need a really large or really small number, and that is when BigInt comes in. We will talk about BigInt later...someday.

Oh, also...in JavaScript, all numbers are converted into 64-bit floating point numbers.

No introduction to numbers would be complete (…or started) without showing you how we can use mathematical operators in code to implement things we learned in first-grade Math class.

Let's look at the common operators in this section.

In JavaScript, we can create simple mathematical expressions using the +, -, *, /, and % operators to add, subtract, multiply, divide, and find the remainder (modulus) of numbers respectively. If you can use a calculator, you can do simple math in JavaScript.

Here are some examples that put these operators to use:

```
let total = 4 + 26;
let average = total / 2;
let doublePi = 2*3.14159;
let subtractItem = 50 – 25;
let remainder = total % 7;
let more = (1 + average * 10) / 5;
```

In the last line in the above example, notice that we are defining a particular order of operations by using parenthesis around the expression I want to evaluate as a group. Again, all of this is just calculator stuff.

JavaScript evaluates expressions in the following order:

- Parenthesis
- Exponents
- Multiply
- Divide
- Add
- Subtract

There are various mnemonic
devices out there to help you remember this. The one I grew up with
since elementary school
is "**P**lease **E**xcuse **M**y
**D**ear **A**unt **S**ally."

A common thing you will do with numbers will involve incrementing or decrementing a variable by a certain amount. Below is an example of me incrementing the variable i by 1:

```
let i = 4;
i = i + 1;
```

You don’t have to increment or decrement by just 1. You can use any arbitrary number:

```
let i = 100;
i = i - 2;
```

All of this doesn’t just have to just be addition or subtraction. You can perform other operations as well:

```
let i = 100;
i = i / 2;
```

You should start to see a pattern here. Regardless of what operator you are using, you’ll notice that you are cumulatively modifying your i variable. Because of how frequently you will use this pattern, you have some operators that simplify this a bit.

Expression |
What it does |

i++ | Increments i by 1 (i = i + 1) |

i-- | Decrements i by 1 (i = i - 1) |

i += n | Increments i by n (i = i + n) |

i -= n | Decrements i by n (i = i - n) |

i *= n | Multiplies by n (i = i * n) |

i /= n | Divides i by n (i = i / n) |

i %= n | Finds the remainder of i when divided by n (i = i % n) |

i **= n | Exponential operator where i is raised to the power of n |

If I use these operators on the three examples you saw earlier, the
code will look as follows:

```
i++;
i -= 2;
i /= 2;
```

Before we wrap this up, there is one quirk you should be aware of. It has to do with the -- and ++ operators for incrementing or decrementing a value by 1. Whether the ++ and -- operators appear before or after the variable they are incrementing matters.

Let’s look at this example:

```
let i = 4;
let j = i++;
```

After executing these two lines, the value of i will be 5...just like you would expect. The value of j will be 4. Notice that in this example, the operator appears after the variable.

If we place the operator in front of the variable, the results are a bit different:

```
let i = 4;
let j = ++i;
```

The value of i will still be 5. Here is the kicker...the value of j will be 5 also.

What changed between these two examples is the position of the
operator. The position of the operator determines
**whether the incremented value will be returned or the pre-incremented
value will be returned**. Now, aren't you glad you learned
that?

Beyond using normal decimal values, you can use hexadecimal (base 16) and octal (base 8) values as well. When working with octal values, make sure to start your number with a 0:

`let leet = 02471;`

For hexadecimal values, you need start your number with 0x:

`let leet = 0x539;`

In many situations, you'll find yourself dealing with octal and hexadecimal values in the form of strings. If they are strings, you cannot manipulate them as you would normal numbers. You need to convert the string to a number first.

The way you do that is by using the parseInt function:

```
let hexValue = parseInt('FFFFFF', 16);
let octalValue = parseInt('011', 8);
```

The parseInt function takes your hexadecimal or octal value followed by the base you are converting from.

The last thing we will look at are two global properties that you will encounter that aren't numerical values. These values are Infinity and NaN.

You can use the Infinity and –Infinity values to define infinitely large or small numbers:

`let myLoveForYou = Infinity * 2;`

The chances of you having to use Infinity are often very slim. Instead, you will probably see it returned as part of something else your code does. For example, you will see Infinity returned if you divide by 0.

The NaN keyword stands for "Not a Number", and it gets returned when you do some numerical operation that is invalid. For example, NaN gets returned in the following case:

`let nope = 1920 / "blah";`

The reason is that you cannot divide a number and a string. There are non-contrived cases where you will see this value returned, and we'll look at some later.

Sometimes, you will have numbers that are buried inside Strings. To get all the scoop on that, read the Going from a String to a Number tutorial.

Numbers are used in a variety of mathematical expressions, and they often go beyond simple additions, subtractions, multiplications, and divisions. Your math classes back in the day would have been a whole lot easier if that's all there was to it. To help you more easily do complicated numerical things, you have the Math object. This object provides you with a lot of functions and constants that will come in handy, and we are going to very briefly look at some of the things this object does.

I am not going to lie to you. Looking at all the stuff the Math object provides is pretty boring. Unless you really want to know about all of this now, I would prefer you just very VERY quickly skim through the following sections and refer back as needed. The Math object isn't going anywhere (it has no friends), so it will be waiting for you at a later time.

To avoid you having to explicitly define mathematical constants like pi, Euler's constant, natural log, and so on, the Math object defines many common constants for you:

Usage |
What it stands for |

Math.E | Euler's constant |

Math.LN2 | Natural logarithm of 2 |

Math.LN10 | Natural logarithm of 10 |

Math.LOG2E | Base 2 logarithm of E |

Math.LOG10E | Base 10 logarithm of E |

Math.PI | 3.14159 (that's all I remember, and I'm too lazy to look up the rest!) |

Math.SQRT1_2 | Square root of 1/2 |

Math.SQRT2 | Square root of 2 |

Of all of these constants, the one I've used the most is Math.PI:

You will use this in everything from drawing circles on your screen to specifying trigonometric expressions. In fact, I can't ever remember having used any of these other constants outside of Math.PI. Here is an example of a function that returns the circumference given the radius:

```
function getCircumference(radius) {
return 2 * Math.PI * radius;
}
alert(getCircumference(2));
```

You would use Math.PI or any other constant just as you would any named variable.

Your numbers will often end up containing a ridiculous amount of precision:

`let position = getPositionFromCursor(); // 159.3634493939`

To help you round these numbers up to a reasonable integer value, you have the Math.round(), Math.ceil(), and Math.floor() functions that take a number as an argument:

Function |
What it does |

Math.round() |
Returns a number that is rounded to the nearest integer. You round up if your argument is greater than or equal to .5. You stay at your current integer, if your argument is less than .5. |

Math.ceil() | Returns a number that is greater than or equal to your argument |

Math.floor() | Returns a number that is less than or equal to your argument |

The easiest way to make sense of the above table is to just see these three functions in action:

```
Math.floor(.5) // 0
Math.ceil(.5) // 1
Math.round(.5) // 1
Math.floor(3.14) // 3
Math.round(3.14) // 3
Math.ceil(3.14) // 4
Math.floor(5.9) // 5
Math.round(5.9) // 6
Math.ceil(5.9) // 6
```

These three functions always round you to an integer. If you want to round to a precise set of digits, check out the last half of my Rounding Numbers in JavaScript tutorial.

My favorite of the functions, the Math object gives you handy access to almost all of the trigonometric functions you will need:

Function |
What it does |

Math.cos() | Gives you the cosine for a given argument |

Math.sin() | Gives you the sine for a given argument |

Math.tan() | Gives you the tan for a given argument |

Math.acos() | Gives you the arccosine (isn't that such a cool name?) for a given argument |

Math.asin() | Gives you the arcsine for a given argument |

Math.atan() | Gives you the arctan for a given argument |

To use any of these, just pass in a number as the argument:

```
Math.cos(0) //1
Math.sin(0) //0
Math.tan(Math.PI / 4) //1
Math.cos(Math.PI) //1
Math.cos(4 * Math.PI) //1
```

These trigonometric functions take arguments in the form of radian values. If your numbers are in the form of degrees, be sure to convert them to radians first.

Continuing down the path of defining the Math object functions, you have Math.pow(), Math.exp(), and Math.sqrt():

Function |
What it does |

Math.pow() | Raises a number to a specified power |

Math.exp() | Raises the Euler's constant to a specified number |

Math.sqrt() | Returns the square root of a giving argument |

Let's look at some examples:

```
Math.pow(2, 4) //equivalent of 2^4 (or 2 * 2 * 2 * 2)
Math.exp(3) //equivalent of Math.E^3
Math.sqrt(16) //4
```

Note that Math.pow() takes two arguments. This might be the first built-in function we've looked at that takes two arguments. This little detail is somehow mildly exciting.

If you want the absolute value of a number, simply use the Math.abs() function:

```
Math.abs(37) //37
Math.abs(-6) //6
```

That's all I got for this.

To generate a somewhat random number between 0 and a smidgen less than 1, you have the Math.random() function. This function doesn't take any arguments, but you can simply use it as part of a mathematical expression:

`let randomNumber = Math.random() * 100;`

Each time your Math.random function is called, you will see a different number returned for Math.random(). To learn all about how to work with this function to generate random numbers, read the Random Numbers in JS tutorial.

That's all there is to it for this introductory tutorial on numbers and the Math object in JavaScript. As you could see, it doesn't get much easier. JavaScript provides a very no-frills approach to working with them, and this tutorial gave you a slight peek at the edges in case you needed to go there.